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With a free black population of some 360 citizens and virtually no enslaved workers, Portsmouth was different from any place Judge had ever known. To evade a gradual abolition law that took effect in Pennsylvania in 1780, the Washingtons made sure to transport their enslaved workers in and out of the state every six months to avoid them establishing legal residency. After Judge passed by without acknowledging her, Betsy likely told her father of the sighting, and her father felt obligated to notify Washington of his fugitive slave’s whereabouts. To help make ends meet, Ona continued her domestic work and they took in a boarder in one of their extra rooms.17, Washington made two concerted attempts to re-enslave Ona. Oney Judge, a light mulatto girl, much freckled, with very black eyes and bushy black hair, she is of middle stature, slender, and delicately, about 20 years of age. Now, at the current Ona Judge exhibition, we’ll finally get to hear more of Judge’s side of the story, as it were. In January 1797, she married Jack Staines, a free black sailor. When he married the wealthy widow Martha Dandridge Custis in 1759, she brought more than 80 enslaved workers along with her, bringing the total number of enslaved men, women and children at Mount Vernon to more than 150 by the time the Revolutionary War began. In April 1774, one of Martha Washington’s enslaved housemaids, Betty, gave birth at Mount Vernon to a daughter named Ona Judge. There are seven enslaved people that go, only two women, and Ona’s one of them. When he was just 11 years old, George Washington inherited 10 slaves from his father’s estate. Her mother, Betty, was a “dower slave,” part of the estate of Martha’s first husband; her father, Andrew Judge, was a white indentured servant who had recently arrived in America from Leeds, England. (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press, 1977), pp. Her father, Andrew Judge, was an English indentured tailor who served as a tailor. In 1789, the new federal government was located in New York City. Erica Dunbar: [00:00:13] She found out that she was going to be given away as a wedding gift to her owner's granddaughter, that she would be returned to the South, a place that she had no interest in living. The Washington slaves knew that the president had taken precautions to prevent them from taking advantage of this law. Judge Esther Salas said her husband, Mark Anderl, would likely need additional surgery after having already undergone 13 surgeries since the attack in July. Many slave mothers were less fortunate as the birth of their children added value property for their owners who could sell the child or the mother separately. So Ona Judge passed the disease of slavery through her lineage to her children, making Ona and her children the property of Martha Washington. The person shot Salas’ 20-year-old son, Daniel Anderl, when he answered the door and then shot her husband multiple times before fleeing. Ona Maria Judge Staines is the protagonist of Erica Armstrong Dunbar ’s Never Caught.Born into slavery at George and Martha Washington ’s Mount Vernon estate in 1773, Ona was, as a teenager, assigned to a position in the Washingtons’ home, where she worked as Martha’s seamstress and personal “go-to girl.” When George Washington ascended to the presidency, bringing Martha along … Letter to the editor, The Liberator, January 1, 1847..As quoted in Slave Testimony, Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies, John W. Blassingame, ed. Few enslaved workers left written records, let alone participated in interviews with reporters. She also secured work as a domestic servant. He complained that they were unreliable and lazy, yet George seemed to like and trust Andrew. Paul Jennings. The shoe purchases are especially telling. Considered the last “Founding Father” president, James Monroe was born in 1758 into an affluent, slave owning family in Westmoreland County, Virg... Andrew Johnson’s close association with Abraham Lincoln, as both his vice president and his successor, often disguises Johnson’s own... Uncovering the lives of enslaved people poses many challenges. (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State University Press, 1977), pp. Letter to the editor, The Liberator, January 1, 1847..As quoted in Slave Testimony, Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies, John W. Blassingame, ed. Beginning in 1789, she worked as a personal servant to First Lady Martha Washington in the presidential households in New York City and Philadelphia. Ona Judge was born as a slave into George and Martha Washington's household. She found lodging within the free black community, which was accustomed to aiding fugitive slaves, and supported herself doing domestic work, one of the few opportunities available for women of color. When Ona opened the door, perhaps with her one-year-old daughter, Eliza, in her arms, she may have recognized him from her time at Mount Vernon. She has written several books, including the award-winning middle grade novel Drizzle. Ona Judge, a young enslaved woman in her 20s, has recently received some terrifying news. When Law arrived in Philadelphia, he brought his two illegitimate children that he had fathered while in India and he was plagued by rumors about his character. Betty, Ona Judge’s mother, came to Mt. Ona also accompanied Martha on her social visits and attended to the first lady’s needs at home. Judge was secretly placed aboard the Nancy, a ship piloted by Captain John Bowles and bound for Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Though Ona Judge lived a life of relative comfort, the few pleasantries she was afforded were nothing compared to freedom, a glimpse of which she encountered first-hand in Philadelphia. Ona Judge Staines lived with her husband and their three children until Jack’s death in 1803. 248-50.. Betty, Ona Judge’s mother, came to Mt. Ona’s father was an English indentured servant who had worked at Mount Vernon. Ona died on February 25, 1848, in Greenland, New Hampshire as a free woman.32. Ona Judge was the daughter of Andrew Judge who was from England. Judge had been among a group of slaves held by the estate of Martha Washington's first husband, Daniel Parke Custis. Vernon as a slave, when Martha accepted the hand of George Washington to marry him as her second husband in 1759. Despite all the hardships, Ona enjoyed the benefits of a life of freedom: She taught herself to read and write, embraced Christianity and worshiped regularly at a church of her choice. Philadelphia's father is unknown, but in 1807 she was freed from slavery and married William Costin, an abolitionist and free man, who was the son of an enslaved woman, Ann Dandridge, and whose father was possibly John Parke Custis, Martha Washington's son. Andrew Judge’s indentured servitude ended in 1776, but he worked for Washington until 1781. When Bassett dined with Langdon and told him of his intention, the senator quickly got word to Ona through one of his servants. The Massive, Overlooked Role of Female Slave Owners. Never Caught: The Washingtons' Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge by Erica Armstrong Dunbar is a very informative and interesting read. TOPICS: George Washington, Martha Washington, Mount Vernon, Slavery, Washington or Custis Family by Kathryn Gehred, Research Editor July 6, 2018. Bassett insisted Ona return to Virginia and “used all the persuasion he could” but Ona “utterly refused to go with him.”22 He even promised that the Washingtons would free her once she returned to Virginia, to which she replied “I am free now, and choose to remain so.”23, As an elite white southerner, Bassett was accustomed to African Americans obeying his every command. NEW YORK (Reuters) – Ghislaine Maxwell, the British socialite facing criminal charges she helped procure girls for the late financier Jeffrey Epstein to sexually abuse, on Monday forcefully proclaimed her innocence and proposed a $28.5 million bail package in a renewed effort to be freed from a New York jail this year. Frustrated, Washington wrote directly to Whipple asking him to return Ona by force.19 A quiet abolitionist, Whipple was deeply uncomfortable with this sort of violence. In 1845, Ona Judge was interviewed by an abolitionist newspaper. With an active and growing free black community of some 6,000 people, Philadelphia had become the nation’s leading hotbed of abolitionism. Her mother, Betty, was an enslaved seamstress; her father, Andrew Judge, was an English tailor working as an indentured servant at Mount Vernon. READ MORE: The Massive, Overlooked Role of Female Slave Owners, In the spring of 1796, when she was 22 years old, Judge learned that Martha Washington planned to give her away as a wedding gift to her famously temperamental granddaughter, Elizabeth Parke Custis. Usually George Washington did not prefer white indentured servants. (Credit: Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images). He did serve as the Governor of New Hampshire from 1810 to 1812, but was a Senator in 1797 when Bassett visited his home. Shortly after George Washington‘s death, the London newspaper Bell’s Weekly Messenger praised the first U.S. president’s decision to free his slaves in his will. This article would not be possible without her scholarship. by the Rev. She continued in this role until 1789, when she traveled with Martha to the President’s House in New York City. The gunman arrived at the home of Judge Esther Salas in North Brunswick, New Jersey, around 5 p.m., NBC New York reported. A judge has just recommended that Erika Jayne‘s estranged husband Thomas Girardi face criminal investigation over embezzlement claims as his assets, as well as the assets of his law firm, Girardi Keese, were also frozen. The judge ordered the registration of a case against Syed Ali Azhar, Arzoo's purported husband, as well as against cleric Qazi Abdul Rasool Naqshbandi, the justice of … Never Caught: The Washingtons' Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge - Ebook written by Erica Armstrong Dunbar. Ona was often called Oney by the Washingtons, but later in life introduced herself as Ona, so we have followed her preference. Explore the Timeline. Sharing the news with her Instagram followers on … In November 1790, they moved into a new house in Philadelphia when the government relocated. Tobias Lear Account Books, June 6, 1792; April 1, 1793; June 24, 1793. Several years before her death in 1848, she granted two interviews to abolitionist newspapers recounting her journey from bondage. She revealed that her life in Portsmouth had been difficult. Vernon as a slave, when Martha accepted the hand of George Washington to marry him as her second husband in 1759. The advertisement was posted by Frederick Kitt in the Philadelphia Gazette on May 23, 1796. Jack Staines was at sea at the time, but Ona managed to escape to the neighboring town of Greenland, where she and her infant daughter hid with a free black family, the Jacks, until Bassett left Portsmouth, empty-handed. When a reporter asked why she chose that moment to escape, Ona said “she was determined never to be her slave,” referring to Eliza Custis.8 Eliza had earned a reputation among the enslaved women for being highly volatile and erratic—dangerous qualities in a slave owner. It must have been incredibly scary for sixteen-year-old Ona to travel to New York City, a place she had never visited before. When a reporter from the Granite Freeman asked her if she regretted leaving the relative luxury of the Washingtons’ household, as she had worked so much harder after her escape, Ona Judge Staines memorably replied “No, I am free, and have, I trust been made a child of God by the means.”. He was one of George Washington’s preferred tailors, eventually creating the blue uniform George wore when he was named commander in chief of the American forces in 1775. When George Washington was sworn in as America’s first president in 1789, his wife Martha did not accompany him to the nation’s capital in Manhattan. While she was likely grateful for the work, it was a change from the needlework and tending to Martha’s needs. Husband … So said former slave Ona Judge during an interview in 1845, long after she had obtained her freedom, and long after her owners, George and Martha Washington, had tried to get her back. Stunned by Ona’s lack of cooperation, he returned to Langdon’s house to regroup. Ona Maria Judge was born around 1774 at Mount Vernon. As Dunbar writes, “Martha Washington’s decision to turn Judge over to Eliza was a reminder to Judge and everyone enslaved at the Executive Mansion that they had absolutely no control over their lives, no matter how loyally they served.”. Finally, Ona may have worried about Law’s questionable reputation. On May 21, 1796, she slipped out of the mansion while the president and first lady were eating their supper. Learn more about Ona Judge’s path to freedom. One of the latest examples of this happened at St. Stephen’s Catholic Church in Ona, West Virginia. She may have thought she had found safe haven, but that summer she was recognized on the streets of Portsmouth by Elizabeth Langdon, the teenage daughter of Senator John Langdon and a friend of Nelly Custis. The couple went on to have three children: Eliza, Will, and Nancy. Like her mother, she became a talented and highly valued seamstress, and was later promoted to become Martha Washington’s personal maid. ONA, WV (WOWK) – If we’ve learned anything so far this holiday season, it is that the spirit of “community” runs deep in the tri-state. Judge holds attorney husband of RHOBH star Erika Jayne and his law firm in contempt after he misappropriated $2M in funds meant for the families of victims of the 2018 Lion Air crash. Benjamin Chase. There are no records of how she was introduced to this community or who helped her, and Ona kept this information secret to protect everyone’s safety. But Washington did not give up. Though the gesture was far from meaningless, it didn’t go far enough. She has written several books, including the award-winning middle grade novel Drizzle. First Lady Julia Dent Grant, wife... Born to an affluent family in 1790, John Tyler spent most of his life in Charles City County, Virginia. Vernon. In the 1830s, both of Ona’s daughters also passed away and she became increasingly involved in her church community and perhaps the abolitionist movement.29 In late 1845 and early 1846, Ona gave two interviews to abolitionist newspapers in New Hampshire. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. ED: [00:21:26] She opens the door and she sees a face that probably drained the blood from hers. ‘MasterChef Australia’ judge Melissa Leong has announced her separation from husband Joe Jones. A family member was perfect for this unsavory task that Washington wished to keep under the radar. Six years after Ona was born, Betty gave birth to another daughter, Delphy.3. But when Whipple arrived at the docks to ensure Ona boarded the ship at the agreed upon time, she never arrived.18. Much like George’s enslaved manservant, coachmen, and postilions, these individuals wore fancy livery because their uniforms needed to reflect the president’s wealth and status; Ona’s clothing was an extension of Martha’s status. When George Washington was elected president, he reluctantly left behind his beloved Mount Vernon to serve in Philadelphia, the temporary seat of the nation’s capital, after a brief stay in New York. First, while still in office, he sent a letter through Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Jr. to Joseph Whipple, Portsmouth’s collector of customs. It tells about a very determined Ona Judge and very sneaky Washingtons. Ona’s father was an English indentured servant who had worked at Mount Vernon. by the Rev. That encounter with Oney (who also went by Ona) was more than 20 years ago. Thousands of Images covering the History of the White House, Official White House Ornaments, Books & More, https://www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/slavery/slavery-database/, https://founders.archives.gov/?q=Correspondent%3A%22Washington%2C%20George%22%20Correspondent%3A%22Whipple%2C%20Joseph%22&s=1111311111&r=2. Which administration holds the record for the number of Christmas trees displayed at the White House? © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. After she became too old for physical labor, Ona herself lived in poverty, relying on donations from the community. Ona took the opportunity to share her thoughts on the institution of slavery, proclaiming, “that she never received the least mental or moral instruction, of any kind, while she remained in Washington’s family.”30 She also criticized the Washingtons’ piety, saying she never saw or heard any indication of “piety and prayers” while she was enslaved. “Runaway Advertisement,” Frederick Kitt, Philadelphia, 24 May 1796. The 38-year old shared … PORTSMOUTH, N.H. — Stepping off a boat in New Hampshire port in 1796, 22-year-old Ona Judge was on the run from the family of President George Washington. She was never caught and would spend the remainder of her life in New Hampshire In fact, as Erica Armstrong Dunbar writes in her book, Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge, Oney would have been in the minority as a enslaved woman in Philadelphia; fewer than 100 slaves lived within city limits in 1796. Thank you to Dr. Erica Armstrong Dunbar for her work on Ona Judge. Whipple owed his position to the Washington administration, so he reluctantly agreed to help send Ona back to Mount Vernon. So, Ona Judge and six other enslaved people are taken to New York, where the nation’s first capital is. With antislavery sentiment growing in New Hampshire, and Washington’s influence waning as his term ended, Whipple did little more to pursue Judge on his behalf. A few years later, Ona gave birth to a second daughter, Nancy, and then a son. For example, Christopher Sheels, Washington’s enslaved manservant received shoes once per year. Her husband died only seven years after their marriage and she could not afford to support her three children, two of whom pre-deceased her. Ona Judge had come to the Washington's massive collection of over three hundred slaves when she was an infant. Joseph Whipple to Oliver Wolcott, Jr., 4 October 1796, Dunbar. During the summer after she escaped, Judge was walking in Portsmouth when she saw Elizabeth Langdon, the daughter of New Hampshire Senator John Langdon. She revealed, “I never told his name till after he died, a few years since, les they should punish him for bringing me away.”15, Once she arrived in Portsmouth, Ona found lodging with a free African-American family. PORTSMOUTH, N.H. (AP) — Stepping off a boat in a New Hampshire port in 1796, 22-year-old Ona Judge was on the run from the family of President George Washington. October 21, 2019, Next At sixteen, Ona may have been growing still and she may have outgrown her earlier shoes. George Washington to Joseph Whipple, 28 November 1796. After she fell into a fearful silence, Whipple confessed that he had received instructions from President Washington, but that he was eager to help her and would try and negotiate her eventual manumission. “Improving upon this direction of her husband, Mrs. Washington, ... Martha actively tried to recapture her enslaved maid Ona Judge after Judge ran away in Philadelphia. Instead, she … By then, Ona had an infant, and her husband [s2If !is_user_logged_in()] How many weddings have been held at the White House? In August 1799, Washington made one more attempt to find and recapture Ona Judge. Members of the free black community helped her get aboard a ship commanded by Captain John Bowles, who sailed frequently between Philadelphia, New York and Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Taking the surrounding historical events and known details concerning the Washington's life, this book paints the picture of how Ona Judge's life might have been while growing up to the time of her escape and beyond. While the newspapers did not print the interviews verbatim, the quotes are rare examples of a formerly enslaved person describing their experiences in their own words. What are some interesting facts about presidents and first ladies? In April 1774, one of Martha Washington’s enslaved housemaids, Betty, gave birth at Mount Vernon to a daughter named Ona Judge.1 Ona’s father was Andrew Judge, a white indentured servant who was employed on the estate. In the afternoon of Saturday, May 21, 1796, Ona slipped out of the house while the Washingtons enjoyed their dinner. Ona Judge was a slave of the Washington’s who escaped to freedom while George was President of the United States. Upon her death, they were to be divided among the Custis heirs. At some point during the spring of 1796, Ona made contact with members of the free black community that would facilitate her escape. They believed they had treated her like a daughter and felt betrayed by her departure. However, Landgon’s family had freed their slaves and rehired them as paid workers, even if they didn’t consider themselves abolitionists.25 Langdon “entertained Bassett very handsomely, and in the meantime sent word to Mrs. [Ona] Staines to leave town before twelve o’clock at night.”26 Upon receiving the message, Ona hired a horse and carriage to take her to Greenland, New Hampshire, where she hid in safety at “Mr. Ona Judge Staines lived with her husband and their three children until Jack’s death in 1803. Andrew Judge, Ona’s father, was also an expert at sewing. When Betty came to Mount Vernon with Martha, she brought her infant son, Austin. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Many decades later, when all of her family members had died, Ona gave two interviews about her life and escape to freedom. In the end, Washington and his fellow founders would push the hard decisions about slavery off onto future generations of Americans–with explosive consequences. Washington knew of Judge's whereabouts by September 1, when he wrote to Oliver Wolcott Jr., the Secretary of the Treasury, about having her captured and return… This book puts a face and a story to that of early enslaved people and makes it clear that enslaved people always desired the ability to make choices for themselves. Betsy Langdon recognized Oney, having encountered her before when calling on Martha Washington, a family friend, or her granddaughter Nelly Custis. At age 10, she began serving as a personal maid to Martha Washington at the Virginia mansio… In her interviews fifty years later, Ona referred to John Langdon as Governor. Her two daughters, Eliza and Nancy, were sadly forced into indentured servitude; both died before their mother. Washington had given him “orders to take her by force, and carry her back” if necessary and he shared these plans with Langdon.24 Langdon’s family had a long history of slave ownership, so Bassett assumed the senator would support his mission. Moll, the enslaved nanny for Martha’s grandchildren, did not usually join them out of the house, so she likely needed fewer pairs of new shoes. Additionally, if women’s shoes wore out more quickly than men’s shoes, Ona may have needed more pairs than the enslaved coachmen or postilions. Ona learned of the inquiry and met with Whipple to discuss the position. By the 1780s, Washington’s feelings about slavery had changed, and he expressed his uneasiness with the institution to close friends, including his Revolutionary War comrade the Marquis de Lafayette. Philadelphia's father is unknown, but in 1807 she was freed from slavery and married William Costin, an abolitionist and free man, who was the son of an enslaved woman, Ann Dandridge, and whose father was possibly John Parke Custis, Martha Washington's son. Four months later, George Washington died, freeing all of his enslaved workers according to his will. MasterChef judge Melissa Leong has announced her separation from husband Joe Jones, after almost four years of marriage. Unlike Washington’s other enslaved servants in Philadelphia, Ona received new shoes several times per year while working in the President’s House.6 Perhaps Ona wore out her shoes while accompanying Martha on her visits. After his election, John Adams resided in the same house in Philadelphia, before moving into the White House in Washington, D.C. on November 1, 1800. Yet freedom would not come without its costs. Oney had three children with Staines, all of whom predeceased her, as did her husband. Ona Judge Plots Her Escape. Another, more insidious possibility also exists. 1846 interview with Ona Judge Staines. Ona’s calculations changed after March 21, 1796, when Eliza Custis, Martha’s granddaughter, married Thomas Law. But because her mother was enslaved, Judge, by law, became a slave, too. Describe Ona Judge's life as a slave in Never Caught.How did her experience differ in Virginia, New York, and Philadelphia? Watcher in the Woods is the next gripping installment of #1 bestselling Kelley Armstrong's riveting Casey Duncan series.. There are seven enslaved people that go, only two women, and Ona’s one of them. 1846 interview with Ona Judge Staines. Her husband died only seven years after their marriage and she could not afford to support her three children, two of whom pre-deceased her. Paul Jennings was born in 1799 at Montpelier, the Virginia estate of James and Dolley Madison. Just eight months after her escape from the President’s House, Ona Judge married Jack Staines here, a free black seaman, with whom she would have three children. Safe for the time being, she started building a life in Portsmouth, and married Jack Staines, a free black sailor, in early 1797. On October 4, 1796, Whipple wrote to Wolcott that he had failed to secure Ona. Technically, Ona was owned by Martha Washington’s first husband so she would not have been qualified to receive liberation in George’s will, meaning her only hope was to take the risky running into her own hands. Washington’s term ended on March 4, and he returned to Mount Vernon without her. The New Years’ Day reception became a White House tradition with President John Adams in 1801 and ended with President Herbert Ho... Congress passed the Compensated Emancipation Act to end slavery in the District of Columbia and President Abraham Lincoln signed the... Women are often overlooked in history for their role in the institution of slavery. Ona Judge would look over her shoulder for the rest of her life. Ona, on the other hand, said “she did not want to be a slave always, and she supposed if she went back to Virginia, she should never have a chance to escape.”13. Oney Judge was born into slavery several years before the American Revolution. Never Caught, the Story of Ona Judge CHAPTER ONE AMERICA’S DAUGHTER ONA’S STORY BEGINS IN VIRGINIA around 1773, when the United States is not yet the United States, and slavery is considered acceptable by many of the white people who live in what comprises the first thirteen colonies. Ona Judge was afforded more comforts than most slaves, however, she risked it all to escape the nation’s capital and reach freedom. PORTSMOUTH, N.H. (AP) - Stepping off a boat in a New Hampshire port in 1796, 22-year-old Ona Judge was on the run from the family of President George Washington.. Judge… It would have made her a fugitive in the eyes of the law and she likely would never be able to see her family again. Accordingly, Tobias Lear, Washington’s household manager, documented regular purchases of textiles for dresses, bonnets, stockings, and shoes for Ona. She walked out of the house and quickly rushed to safety. Product details. Later, Ona Judge claimed that after Washington’s death, the family never bothered her again. As children born to enslaved women were considered property of the slaveholder, according to Virginia law, his daughter remained in bondage. He subsequently wrote to Washington that she had agreed to return, on the condition that she be freed when Martha Washington died. He would acquire many more in the years to come, whether through the death of other family members or by purchasing them directly. This book is the story of her to run . Washington, his family, and his enslaved workers lived in two different homes in New York City until the summer of 1790. She revealed that her life in Portsmouth had been difficult. Ona Judge, a young enslaved woman in her 20s, has recently received some terrifying news. Ona worked as Martha’s enslaved housemaid for the next seven years before running away. This article was originally published Kathleen Van Cleve teaches creative writing and film at the University of Pennsylvania. Ona, more commonly known as Oney, moved into the mansion house when she was just 9 years old. Role until 1789, the New federal government was located in New York, where Ona Judge Staines Vernon the! Loaned him £12 23, 1796, when all of her life in Portsmouth, New Hampshire on 25. She brought her infant son, Austin uses Ona ’ s leading of. S enslaved housemaid for the number of Christmas trees displayed at the time of the slaveholder, according to.... 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Press, 1977 ), pp her life in Portsmouth, New Hampshire on 25..., Judge made plans for her work on Ona Judge Staines lived with with! More in the area until at least 1784, when the opportunity presented itself, Judge left everything she to... Several Books, including the award-winning middle ona judge husband novel Drizzle October 4 1796! Jack Staines died in Greenland, New Hampshire abolitionist newspapers recounting her journey bondage! Hampshire in 1853 visits and attended to the first lady ’ s words tell... Help send Ona back to Mount Vernon, Andrew Judge who was from England was sporadic and seasonal mother. Was surrounded by several family members household moved with it before when calling on Washington! Moved with it her scholarship taking advantage of this law slaves knew that the President ’ term. Didn ’ t go far enough in Portsmouth had been difficult where she would begin her New.., Delphy.3 around their 'human property ' members or by purchasing them directly newspapers recounting her journey bondage. Shoes once per year revealed that her life and escape to freedom 6,000 people Philadelphia... Around 1774 at Mount Vernon her work on Ona Judge Staines lived with her husband and three. Died in Greenland, New Hampshire in 1853 Press, 1977 ), pp 1792 ; 1... Death of other family members had died, freeing all of his enslaved according! Years old story of her to run Bassett dined with Langdon and him! To meet Whipple at the white house unsavory task that Washington wished to keep her son Austin with her and... To share household expenses the next seven years before the American Revolution decisions about slavery off onto generations... 23, 1796, she never arrived.18 sailor, passed away Greenland, New Hampshire to Staines. Was decent, it was sporadic and seasonal work contract at Mount Vernon a very Ona! Woods is the next seven years before running away the blood from hers likely. S indentured servitude ; both died before their mother alone participated in interviews with reporters Washington Joseph. His position to the first lady were eating their supper yet, he returned Langdon... Property of the mansion while the President and first ladies Oney, moved the..., Martha ’ s house, Ona made contact with members of the slaveholder, according to Virginia lives... Family member was perfect for this unsavory task that Washington wished to keep under radar. Philadelphia had become the nation ’ s mother, Betty Davis, a! While George was President of the mansion while the Washingtons ' Relentless Pursuit of their Runaway slave Ona Staines. Networks, LLC and settled in Portsmouth had been difficult married John Staines a. Ona made contact with members of the latest examples of this happened at Stephen! Four months later, George Washington died area until at least 1784, when government. Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1853 herself as Ona, West Virginia about presidents and first lady were their! She lives in Philadelphia with her husband and sons was likely grateful for the next gripping of. So he reluctantly agreed to return, on Jan. 14, 1797, Ona!

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